Microsoft Business Applications Summit Recordings

Ken had a blast in June going down to Atlanta for the Microsoft Business Applications Summit (MBAS). There, he and co-author Miguel Escobar led an in-person workshop together for the first time. Ken also presented a breakout session on best practices for spreadsheet modeling, data shaping and data analysis. However, his real highlight was helping people with their Excel questions at the Ask the Experts booth.

Ken at the Microsoft Business Applications Summit 2019

Ken Puls hanging out at the Ask The Experts booth with his 'M is for Data Monkey' co-author Miguel Escobar and Excel legend Bill Jelen (aka Mr. Excel).

At MBAS, Microsoft also unveiled their new Power Query website. It's wonderful to finally have an official Microsoft site dedicated to this amazing tool. In addition, we're extremely proud that the Excelguru blog, along with the books and website created as part of our Power Query Training project, are listed in the Resources section!

Microsoft Power Query Website

We are thrilled to be included on the Resources page of the new Power Query official website!

On-demand Session Recordings

If you weren't able to make it to MBAS, or didn't get to all the sessions you wanted to, Microsoft has tons of on-demand recordings available for FREE! This is an amazing resource to help you continue to learn about and explore the Microsoft ecosystem. You can check them all out at the Microsoft Business Applications Summit website. Microsoft broke the sessions down into 4 streams: Power BI, PowerApps, Microsoft Flow, and Microsoft Dynamics.

Excel Sessions

Microsoft included Excel sessions in the Power BI stream under the "Other" category. Thus, you may find them a bit tricky to find. Luckily the Excel team gathered together a list of available recordings that we wanted to share. This includes Ken's session with David Monroy of Microsoft on data modeling and analysis best practices:

Power Query Sessions

The Power Query sessions at Microsoft Business Applications Summit were also part of the Power BI stream. Hence, we've compiled a list of available recordings to make them easier to find:

Unfortunately, we do not have a recording of Ken and Miguel's workshop on Working with Data in the Power Platform and Excel.

Microsoft Business Applications Summit 2020

Mark your calendar - next year's event will be held in Anaheim, CA on April 20 and 21. Additionally, you can sign up to receive updates for MBAS 2020 info on the event site. Perhaps we'll see you there!

Self Service BI with Excel and Power BI

This week Ken is at the Microsoft Business Applications Summit in Atlanta. However, we're super excited that he'll be back on home turf in July for our next public training session. The 3-day Self Service BI Boot Camp in Vancouver will change your company's reporting game forever!

Is Self Service BI a Double-Edged Sword?

Matthew Roche, a member of Microsoft's Power BI CAT Team and noted sword enthusiast, recently posted about a trend he's seeing. His global customers often describe self service BI as a "double-edged sword." After thinking about this comparison, he felt the simile held up. But perhaps not in the way you think!

In the post on his blog, Matthew summed it up nicely. Having two sharp edges is only dangerous to the wielder if they don't know how to effectively use each of the distinct and complementary edges together.

Approaching Self Service BI for the First Time

Perhaps you've been thinking about implementing some self service BI solutions within your organization. And you've been hearing a lot of buzz about Power BI. But you're unsure where to start or how Power BI fits in with your existing data platforms and reporting tools.

Our Self Service BI Boot Camp, with 3 full days of immersive hands-on learning, might be just the place to begin. Guided by the Excelguru, Ken Puls, you'll work with both Excel and Power BI to build some really cool self service BI solutions! We'll not only show you which tool is right for which kind of job, but how to use them together in one solution.

What will the Boot Camp Cover?

We know that data is not usually stored in nicely curated databases and often - even when it is - the data analyst doesn’t have access to it. Instead, we must piece together data provided in text files, Excel files, web pages, and even the body of emails to build the business intelligence solutions we need. Until now this has been a painful process with a great deal of cut and paste effort, and updates have been tedious and error prone. That stops with this workshop!

Building Modern BI Solutions

In the Self-Service BI Boot Camp we'll dive into:

  • a deep exploration of Power Query for gathering, cleaning, and preparing your ugly data
  • the benefits, concepts, and key terminology of Dimensional Modeling
  • an introduction to DAX,including:
    • how to create a variety of DAX measures
    • how to control their Filter Context
    • understanding how DAX measures are calculated

Learn how CALCULATE works in our Self Service BI Boot Camp

  • calendar intelligence, such as:
    • building calendar tables
    • using the “Golden Date” pattern
    • extending our model to report based on our own year-end
  • how to leverage the strengths of Power BI for sharing and reporting
  • specific features of Excel and Power BI that every analyst should know, plus:
    • which tool to use for which job
    • how they can be used together
  • recommended best practices for boosting the performance of your self service BI solution

You can read more about the class on the Excelguru website. Likewise, check out the course outline to see what will be covered in each of the 3 days.

Top 5 Reasons to Attend

  1. Our Self Service BI Boot Camp is loaded with hands-on, practical experience. As Ken's friend, Thomas LaRock, recently commented on Twitter, "Telling isn't teaching." Our philosophy is that you need to actually work with a tool in order to really learn it.
  2. The small class size provides a more intimate learning environment. Working with a small group allows Ken to interact directly with attendees, answering your questions and fielding discussions as they come up. You get to pose questions and discuss scenarios with one of the world's leading self service BI experts. However, this means that spots are limited, so don't  miss out on your chance to sign up.
  3. There's no better time to come to Vancouver than in July - it's a beautiful city all year round, but is in its prime this time of year. That being said, while we can't 100% guarantee great weather, we CAN guarantee you'll get some GREAT training!
  4. Early registration pricing is now in effect. You can save $200 if you sign up before June 24, 2019. Simply go to our website and enter the following coupon code at checkout: SSBIJULY2019.
  5. Registration includes some valuable resources to take with you, so you can refer to them later. You'll get a copy of Ken's slides, many of which contain handy recipes to walk you step-by-step through the techniques. Additionally, youreceive copies of all the class example files, including completed versions for later review. These examples are based on real-world scenarios and provide you with techniques that you can being applying to your own data right away.

Unpivot Subcategorized Tables with Power Query

So what are you waiting for? Come and join us to revolutionize your reporting process!


Become a Data Master with Power Query

Ken is really excited to be teaching his popular Master Your Data with Power Query class for the first time in New York City! Join us this spring for a small group hands-on workshop and learn how to become a Data Master with Power Query.

Learn to become a Data Master with Power Query

Join Ken Puls for a live hands-on session in New York, NY on April 17, 2019.

What's so great about Power Query?

If there is one thing you need to learn in Excel today, Power Query is it. With Power Query, you can clean, reshape, and combine your data with ease. No more tedious cutting and pasting between multiple files. No more manually removing garbage rows or adding new columns. And no more repeating the same time-consuming steps whenever you need to refresh the data.

Instead, once you have your data the way you want it, all you have to do is click refresh and it will be ready to be loaded into the next day's/week's/month's/quarter's report. You can even schedule these refreshes to happen automatically!

What will be covered in the workshop?

The day will begin with a quick overview of Excel tables, PivotTables, and what makes "good" data. Next, Ken will show you how to import data from a wide variety of files, including Excel workbooks, CSV and TXT files, databases, and even entire folders. You'll be able to clean, transform, and refresh your data in Power Query with just a few clicks.

Ken will also show you how to append (or stack) data from multiple tables and 7 ways to merge (or join) tables without any VLOOKUPs. You'll be able to pivot data like this:

Pivoting Data with Power Query

and unpivot data like this:

Unpivoting Data with Power Query

But wait, there's more!

Ken will teach you some more advanced techniques using conditional logic. He will also give an overview of best practices for structuring your queries and query folding. Additionally, you'll receive a copy of the course slides to refer back to. Many of these slides contain handy recipes that will lead you step-by-step through the data transformation techniques.

Not only that, you will be able to directly ask a leading Power Query expert to help you with challenges you are currently facing with your own data. That kind of in-person access is invaluable!

How can Power Query help me?

A data wrangler spends the majority of their time just gathering, cleaning, and preparing the data before it can be even used in a report, chart, or other data model. Instead, become a Data Master with Power Query and get hours of your time back. For example, Ken was able to help a workshop attendee automate a workflow in 30 seconds, saving them 6 hours per week!

Power Query is the data preparation tool of the future, not only for Excel but also for Power BI Desktop, Microsoft Flow, and more. Thus, everything you learn in this course is transferable to other technologies - giving you more bang for your buck.

How do I make the case to my boss for sending me to the course?

As Ken mentioned in a previous blog post, the cost of the course can look like a lot up front. This is especially true if you must also pay for travel, hotel, etc. But divide the $499 USD registration fee + any expenses by your hourly rate. You'll see a return on investment pretty quickly with the time you save using Power Query.

However, the real value of the training comes in when you look at what you can do for your company with that extra time. You can now focus on analyzing the data instead of preparing it. See, Power Query turns your data into information. It allows you to identify new opportunities, make better decisions, and add real value to your organization.

Where do I go to become a Data Master with Power Query?

Ken will be leading this full-day workshop on Wednesday, April 17, 2019 at the NYC Seminar and Conference Center in New York City. But this is a small group session so there are only a limited number of spots available. Register today to secure your chance to receive personal guidance from a world-class Power Query expert. Go to the Excelguru website to view the full course description and register online.

Building BI in Excel Course

Are you interested in learning how to clean and shape data with Power Query, as well as how to model it using Power Pivot? Don’t know which of these mysterious skills to tackle first? Want to learn about building BI in Excel where you create refreshable and maintainable solutions?

Good news: Ken Puls will be in Wellington, New Zealand on February 25-26, 2019 leading a live 2-day, hands-on session covering these essential skills!

What does Building BI in Excel cover?

In Day 1, you’ll learn how Power Query can clean up, reshape and combine your data with ease – no matter where it comes from. You can convert ASCII files into tables, combine multiple text files in one shot, and even un-pivot data. These techniques are not only simple, but an investment in the future! With Power Query’s robust feature set at your fingertips, and your prepared data, you can begin building BI in Excel using Power Pivot. The best part is that these dynamic business intelligence models are refreshable with a single click.

Un-pivoting Subcategorized Data

Un-pivoting subcategorized data is easy with Power Query

Day 2 focuses on Power Pivot, a technology that is revolutionizing the way that we look at data inside Microsoft Excel. Power Pivot allows you to link multiple tables together without a single VLOOKUP statement. It also enables you to pull data together from different tables, databases, the web, and other sources like never before. But this just scratches the surface! We'll also focus on proper dimensional modeling techniques and working with DAX formulas to report on your data the way you need to see it.

Top Selling Servers Report

Build dynamic reports that are easy to filter and refresh

Who is this course for?

Building BI in Excel is for anyone who regularly spends hours gathering, cleaning and/or consolidating data in Excel. It's also valuable for anyone responsible for building and maintaining reports. Participants must have experience using PivotTables. Some exposure to Power Pivot and Power Query is not required but is a bonus.

Where do I sign up?

We are offering this course in conjunction with Auldhouse, a leading computer training company in New Zealand. Go to the Auldhouse site and use the following promo code EARLYBIRD20 to give yourself a 20% discount.

This will knock $300 NZ off the course, bringing it down to $1200. That’s $600 per day for pretty much the best introduction to both Power Query and Power Pivot that money can buy! Then use your new skills to free up 90% of your data-wrangling time, giving you time to negotiate a 20% pay increase*. Unbeatable ROI!

Don't miss out, the early bird discount is only available until January 31, 2019! Visit the Auldhouse site today for full details and registration.

*Numbers are indicative only, your mileage may vary. Heck, it may be way better than that!

Disaster Recovery in Puerto Rico with Power Query

When Ken was at the Microsoft Business Applications Summit a few weeks ago, he met Mr. J.A. Garcia who has been doing some amazing work with Power Query. We wanted to share his story about how he has been using Power Query in helping with disaster recovery efforts in Puerto Rico:

"[In] my line of work there's been two defining moments that have changed the way we look at our tools. The first one was the Zika outbreak and the second one was Hurricane Maria.

The first time I saw Power Query was [as part of] Power BI during the Zika outbreak [in 2016]. One of our clients needed up-to-date information of the Zika outbreak and its effect on healthcare. With the help of a consultant, we started using Power BI and Power Query.

Aedes aegypti mosquito

An Aedes aegypti mosquito, one of the main transmitters of Zika virus.

I began taking courses during that time, and one of them was about Excel. That's when I learned about Get & Transform in Excel 2016.

Any new job that I received, I tried to use Power Query. I taught myself SQL so I could understand better the process of extracting data and how to integrate it into Power Query.

Our job was changing. We could give the tools to our clients that would let them refresh when they needed it the most. No more waiting [on] our area for a data refresh!

Then Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico [in September/October 2017]. It was a harsh two weeks of no communication. As soon as I came back from work, I noticed the change in attitude. As a healthcare company, we began doing Public Health.

Hurricane Maria - Disaster Recovery with Power Query

Hurricane Maria is regarded as being the worst natural disaster on record to affect Dominica and Puerto Rico and the deadliest Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Stan in 2005.

My main job was identifying members with certain serious conditions. I used Power Query and Excel to create processes that obtain information from the assessment done to keep track of the efforts of the company. The clients could refresh the data and see who was missing, fix any data entry errors and more.

I'm very proud of my work, and Power Query in Excel and Power BI has been a large part of my growth. In the present, we have created a tool that refreshes constantly to help identify members with serious conditions. Now in case of any emergency, we'll know who to attend."

~ J.A. Garcia

We were very inspired how Mr. Garcia began is Power Query journey as part of the disaster recovery efforts after these emergencies, and that he and his team continue to leverage this powerful tool in both Excel and Power BI. Power Query really can help save lives!

Do you have an story to share about your Power Query journey? Maybe it hasn't saved your life literally, but perhaps it has saved you hours of time and effort, a significant amount of money, or even your sanity! Let us know in the comments below or contact us through the Excelguru site.

Power Pivot eBook Coming Soon

It's been a long time coming, but we are putting the finishing touches on the third installment of our free 'DIY BI' series. Consequently, we are excited to announce that the Power Pivot eBook will be officially released on Tuesday, July 3, 2018!

Power Pivot eBook

This brand new book will feature five of Ken's top tips, tricks, and techniques for Power Pivot, including:

  • Hiding fields from a user
  • Hiding zeros in a measure
  • Using DAX variables
  • Retrieving a value from an Excel slicer
  • Comparing data using one field on multiple slicers

Power Pivot eBook


About the 'DIY BI' Series

This free eBook series is available to anyone who signs up for the monthly(ish) Excelguru email newsletter. The series includes four books, one edition each for Excel, Power Query, Power Pivot, and Power BI. Each book contains five of our favourite tips, tricks, and techniques which Ken developed over years of research and real-world experience.

DIYBI eBook Series

We first launched this series in the spring of 2017 with the Excel Edition, and the Power Query edition followed later that summer. You can read some more about why Ken decided to create this series in his initial blog post about it.

The Excelguru Newsletter

The monthly Excelguru email newsletter features the latest updates for Excel and Power BI, as well as upcoming training sessions and events, new products, and other information that might be of interest to the Excel and Power BI community.

Don't Miss Out, Get Your Free Copy of the Series

If you're not already a newsletter subscriber, you can sign up here. We will send you the Excel Edition right away, and the Power Query Edition a few days later. All of our current and new subscribers will receive the Power Pivot edition once it is released on July 3, 2018. Be sure to keep an eye on your inbox for the new book.

We will be continuing to work on the fourth and final book, the Power BI Edition, over the coming months so stay tuned for details!

Unlock Excel Conference

Unlock Excel Returns to Australia and New Zealand

We're really excited that Ken is going to be heading back "down under" this April for CPA Australia's Unlock Excel conference. Spending two days in each of four different cities, Unlock Excel features sessions from a renowned group of Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs). Based on how well-received the conference was last year, you don't want to miss out on this year's event!

Unlock Excel

The Unlock Excel conference will be coming to Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, and Wellington in April 2018.

Who is Unlock Excel For?

Unlock Excel is geared towards people who want to discover fresh and exciting ways to unlock the full potential of their data. While advancing your Excel skills, you will also learn how to become more efficient, explore new tools and applications, and streamline your day-to-day processes.

Who are the MVPs?

Microsoft chooses their MVPs annually based on their high level of public community contributions, but it's more than just quantity of materials that they share for free... they also have to be technical experts in their field.  One of the hallmarks of an MVP is their  continued dedication to discovering the best ways to use Excel and other Microsoft products, and another is their passion for sharing those techniques with the world.

Ken and the other presenters at Unlock Excel are passionate educators with a deep knowledge of Excel. Because of their experience bringing together diverse platforms, products, and solutions, they will share how they tackle real-world problems.

What Will I Learn?

The sessions at Unlock Excel will feature a variety of topics including charting, financial modelling, VBA, and the Power BI suite of tools. By attending, you will pick up valuable time-saving tips and tricks to take your current knowledge to the next level. Additionally, you will learn to manage your own complex data sets, thereby uncovering unique insights. As a result, you will add value to discussions and help drive effective decision making for your business.

When and Where Can I Attend?

This year's Unlock Excel conference will be visiting the following cities:

Take advantage of early bird pricing available only until March 13, 2018. Visit the CPA Australia site for more information and to register.

The Each Keyword in Power Query

This post is a guest article from Marcus Croucher, a finance professional based in Auckland, New Zealand. Marcus instantly fell in love with Power Query after seeing how it can easily transform data in ways Excel finds difficult, and how it can automate repetitive workflows.

I have been using Power Query in a professional capacity for a number of years, but have never fully understood exactly how the each keyword works in Power Query. I did some research around two years ago, but the documentation at the time was quite sparse (and still isn't great) and I did not have enough knowledge about wider programming to fully understand it.

In the meantime, I was looking for a way to use Power Query-like technology on OSX. I ended up learning a lot of Python, which has several libraries that have similar functionality to Power Query (albeit without the amazing graphical interface of Power Query.) Two notable examples are pandas (very popular data analysis library), and petl (a more light-weight and easy to use data processing toolkit).

This general programming knowledge gave me the background to understand some of the underlying concepts behind each, which I will now proceed to attempt to convey to you, the general intermediate to advanced Excel user, so that you can understand and wield the each keyword with confidence. I will use Python as a parallel and will link to some Python articles that expand on the underlying concepts I am trying to explain.

A Deep Dive into How the Each Keyword Works

In this article, I assume that you are familiar with Power Query and how to use it on a practical level. I also assume that you have some (limited) experience with the advanced editor and have seen the underlying M code, and understand the underlying data structures and how to access them.

  • Table
  • List (columns) – notated as {item one, item two, etc.} and accessed by [column header]
  • Record (rows) – notated as [category1: data1, category2: data2, etc] and accessed by {row number}

I suggest going ahead and pasting the code snippets into a blank query in Power Query to see for yourself what is really going on.

When Might You Use the Each Keyword?

The each keyword in Power Query is used by quite a few of the built-in operations. For example, filtering a table based on a certain column features each here:


sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),

filter_to_score_5 = Table.SelectRows(sample_table,

each ([Score] = 5))



Figure 1

Using the Each keyword to filter a table based on a certain column

The purpose is quite clear: we want to keep each row where the value in the Score column is equal to 5. However, how does this work? [Score] looks like it is referring to a full column – how can we do a full column equal to a single value? Can I access values from the row above or below the row we want to keep/discard?

Another example of the each keyword in Power Query is creating custom columns. Here, I create a custom column which is the combination of the index and the name columns:


sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),

add_ordered_name_column = Table.AddColumn(

sample_table, "ordered_name",
each Number.ToText([Index]) & " " & [Person])



Figure 2

Using the Each keyword to create a custom column which is the combination of the index and the name columns.

Similar questions apply. It is easy to follow the logic, but how it works and the limitations behind it are somewhat of a mystery.

So What is the Each Keyword in Power Query?

The current documentation has this to say about the keyword:

Each Keyword

The each keyword is used to easily create simple functions. “each ...” is syntactic sugar for a function signature that takes the _ parameter “(_) => ...”


Each is useful when combined with the lookup operator, which is applied by default to _ For example, each [CustomerID] is the same as each [CustomerID], which is the same as () => _[CustomerID]

Still not very clear (unless you have a background in functional programming languages). It would be really nice to get a full understanding, as the each keyword in Power Query is used in a number of places (filtering, custom columns, etc.) and understanding it would give us an understanding of what we can and can't do with it.

Turns out, you need to understand three things to understand each:

  1. Functions as first class objects
  2. "_" as a temporary variable (and the associated shortcuts within M language)
  3. Anonymous functions (each)

Functions as First Class Objects

If you are used to using Excel, you are used to functions (e.g., =SUM() ) being a bit magical. We cannot touch or modify them, and they are supplied fully formed by Excel. You can create custom functions with VBA, but these are far and few between, and still seem like the lessor cousin to the in-built functions.

In Power Query, functions can be thought of just another "object" – or just another type of data. This means they can be:

  • Assigned to a variable and/or renamed.
    • Just like we can do something like variable = 5, in Power Query, so we can do something like variable = function.
  • Fairly easily created
  • Used as a parameter to another function (!)

To understand this, we need to distinguish between calling a function (using it in our code) and referring to it (to name it or to use it within another function). Similar to other programming languages, to call a function we use the parentheses at the end like:


If we want to refer to a function we just omit the parentheses like:


Let's demonstrate the renaming/reassigning of functions. First I take one of the supplied functions which takes a list (i.e., column) and calculates the sum. Next, I build a sample table, and then take a sum of one of the columns using the function that I had defined at the beginning.


sum_column = List.Sum,

sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),

sum = sum_column(sample_table[Score])



Figure 3

Calling a function within another function.

It works!

Let's create a basic function

In Power Query, the syntax to create a function is:

(variable) => body of function

The body of the function is like any other query that returns a value, but instead of being delivered to the main Power Query interface it is delivered to whatever called it.

We also want to assign a name to the function, so let's expand the above template. Here, we create a simple function that takes a number and multiplies it by two.

multiply_by_two = (number) =>


output = number * 2



Looking good, but now we want to use this snippet in a full query. Let's build a (trivial) query that uses this function to multiply a variable by two and output the result:


multiply_by_two = (number) =>


output = number * 2



x = 5,
y = multiply_by_two(x)



Figure 4

Building a simple query that uses the function we created.

Functions as inputs to other functions

Now that we have explored how functions are the same as any other data type or variable, and we have demonstrated how we can create our own functions, let's look at functions that take other functions as inputs. One example from the official documentation is the filtering function, Table.SelectRows.


Returns a table containing only the rows that match a condition.


Table.SelectRows(table as table, condition as function) as table

So the function expects a table (makes sense), and a function! How does this work? According to the documentation, the condition is "the condition to match".

It's not very well documented, but it turns out that this function expects a function to be supplied. It then applies that function to each row (record) of the table, and expects a true or false response from the function. It then uses this response to decide whether to keep or discard the row.

To recap, a record is a data type representing a row. We can access the items from a record by supplying the column name as follows: record[column name].

Let's create a function which we can then supply to Table.SelectRows on our sample data. Note – this is our case study example which I will develop throughout this article.


filterer_score_two_plus = (record) =>


value = record[Score],
result = value >= 2



sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),

filtered = Table.SelectRows(




Figure 5

Creating the sample_table function.

Figure 6

Using the Table.SelectRows function to filter the table created by the sample_table function.

What have I done here? First I have created a function which takes a record, extracts the value in the Score column and returns true if it is greater or equal to two. I then construct my sample table and apply the Table.SelectRows function on it, supplying my recently constructed function as the second input. As we can see, the output as expected provides a table with all rows with scores greater or equal to two.

Now, only if there was a quicker and easier way to create such functions, as it looks like we might have to build these one-use functions quite a lot...

"_" as a Temporary Variable

The use of _ as a throw-away variable is common across several programming languages, Python included (see point 4 here). Usually, _ is used to name things that are not going to be used again and so it is not worth using up another name.

Here I write a query creating a table, assigning it to a variable called _. Power Query has no problem whatsoever using _ in this way.


_ = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"})



For Python, using _ is just a convention, but it appears that Power Query has expanded the functionality here. Let's say we just want the column of names from the above table. Usually we can do this by selecting the column by name using [column_name] as the selector.


_ = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"})



It turns out, we can omit the _ in this statement as Power Query will infer that if we just put [Person], the table we are referring to is the one called _. The example below works just as well as the one above:


_ = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"})



Figure 7

If we omit the _ variable in this statement and just use [Person], Power Query infers that the table we are referring to is the one called _.

I wouldn't recommend this as general practice, as it is not well documented or understood behaviour and explicit is usually better than implicit. However, it does provide nice-looking code when used with the each keyword.

Note that this technique only works for column selections [column_name] rather than row selections {row_number}, as Power Query will interpret {row_number} as a new list.

Applying the _ Variable

With this concept in place, let's revise our filtering query defined above:


filterer_score_two_plus = (_) =>


result = [Score] >= 2



sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),


filtered = Table.SelectRows(sample_table,




The shortest we can actually get this is pretty close to our final stage. Let's put the function definition right into the Table.SelectRows function, and get rid of the let and the in (only really needed if there are multiple steps in the calculation):


sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),


filtered = Table.SelectRows(sample_table,

(_) => [Score] >= 2)



This is already pretty tight and clean. However, the (_) => is pretty scary if you're not familiar with function definitions, and the function definition symbol "=>" is fairly similar to our greater than symbol ">=".

Anonymous Functions

As we saw above, we end up creating one-off functions to supply to other functions quite frequently in Power Query. It seems silly to go through all of the syntax of creating and naming a function if it won't be used again. There is a concept called anonymous functions, which are functions that are defined but not named. They are used as soon as they are created. In Python, these are known as lambda functions.

We can actually use the each keyword in Power Query to define the function. (Yes, we are finally at the each keyword itself!) Each just minimizes the syntax for creating functions, by providing a default input variable name, "_", and removing the need for the => or anything else. So:

(_) =>


result = [Score] >= 2




can become:

each [Score] >= 2

You can still name this if you like (filterer = each [Score] >= 2), but using the each keyword in Power Query is much more useful if we use it inline. So we come to our final query, which should look fairly familiar to intermediate Power Query users:


sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),

filtered = Table.SelectRows(sample_table,

each [Score] >= 2)




So What have We Discovered?

Now we have demystified the magic of the each keyword in Power Query, but what have we discovered?

  • Each itself doesn't actually do that much, slightly simplifying our function definitions.
  • Once you understand the concept of supplying functions as inputs to functions, everything becomes a lot clearer.
  • The missing piece of the puzzle comes from an understanding of the special _ variable name, which enables us to take a shortcut when selecting columns from tables or records (we can use [column name] instead of _[column name]).
  • The use of each hinges on the behaviour of the underlying function. Because we know that Table.SelectRows calls the supplied function on each record of a table and expects a true/false response, we can construct a function that works as we expect it to. Unfortunately, this is not very well documented.

How can we use this information? I can think of a few different ways:

  • If we have a complicated add column or filtering step to do, we can separate out the underlying logic into a separate function which can have multiple steps. This removes the complexity from the main body of the code and abstracts it away. It can be easier to read filter_to_current_year_red_cars rather than try to interpret all of the various equivalence statements as you read through the code.
  • Now that we understand the context that is delivered (only the current record/row), we can construct functions that can do more interesting things (these usually require an index column). For example, we can filter a table based on a second table, or add a new column that subtracts the current row from the previous row.

Here's an example that:

  1. Abstracts the logic to a helper function, and
  2. Adds a column based on the difference for each row from the previous row.


row_difference = each

if [raw_index] = 0
then [Score]
else [Score] - add_index[Score]{[raw_index] - 1},

sample_table = Table.FromColumns({

{"Fred", "Mary", "Phil", "Sue"},
{1, 2, 3, 4},
{5, 2, 5, 1}},
{"Person", "Index", "Score"}),

add_index = Table.AddIndexColumn(sample_table,

"raw_index", 0, 1),

add_difference_column = Table.AddColumn(

add_index, "difference",




Figure 8

Adding a column based on the difference for each row from the previous row

So does this help your understanding of the each keyword in Power Query? Has this given you some new ideas on how to structure your queries? Please let me know if you have any questions!

Using Power BI When You’re Not a Data Person

This week's blog post on using Power BI when you're not a data person is a guest post by Rebekah Sax of Excelguru Consulting Inc.

Last week I participated Excelguru's first ever "Data to Dashboards" Power BI Boot Camp. Seventeen of us lucky attendess were introduced to the incredible power of Power BI. Just to be clear, I am NOT a data person. My background is in marketing and communications, which is the main focus of my role here at Excelguru. So I was a bit nervous about being the only participant that was not in finance/accounting, an Excel jockey or a data analyst of some sort. Would I be able to keep up with the class and learn this brand new platform? How could someone go about  using Power BI when you're not a data person who usually works with numbers?

Welcome to Power BI

The boot camp consisted of three jam-packed days of hands-on exercises led by Ken Puls. We started off nice and easy with creating some basic visuals we are all familiar with, such as map, bar and column charts. By the end of the first day, we had learned how to build reports and dashboards using multiple data sources, and how to publish and share them. Later, we began writing DAX measures for filtering and shaping our data. This is where I learned that I CAN CODE! However, there is also a great feature called Q&A. This is a "query interface" which allows you to pull insights from your data using regular English, no coding required. For example, you can type in "number of locations" or "total sales in May" and Power BI will build you a basic visual that shows the information, pulled from your source data table.

For the last part of the day, we had fun playing around with cool custom visuals from the Power BI Custom Visuals Library. These are a great way to tell a story with your data by making it more visually interesting and engaging. Some of the options are a little whimsical. I mean, I don't know why I would ever need to represent data as fish swimming in a tank, but I could if I wanted to.

Power BI Custom Visuals Library

The number of custom visuals available in the Power BI library is really impressive, and many of them are free.

Cleaning and Working with Data

Our second day began by looking at the ways Power BI gets, transforms and loads our data using Power Query. This amazing tool is also used in Excel, so the techniques we learned are transportable between Excel and Power BI. I'm glad I had been previously introduced to Power Query, but some things were still challenging. For example, it took a while to wrap my head around Power BI's six different types of joins for merging two tables together. Luckily, I can use the copies of the example slides to use as a reference later on.

Inner Join

The "Inner" join type in Power BI. This join gathers only records which exist in both tables.

It was interesting to learn different techniques for breaking apart and recombining data from various sources into one cohesive data set. We also dove into formulas using M code (the Power Query language) and learning intermediate DAX measures (yikes, more coding!).

The Loaded Pencil

What really blew me away was when we started applying these measures to sales data from a fictional restaurant called the Loaded Pencil. First, we set up a calendar table and used the Calculate measure to start pulling out key metrics such as sales for a particular period. Another measure allowed us to compare to sales for the same period the previous year, quarter or month. Using different visuals, we easily filtered the data to view specific sales details. Our report even allowed us to look at the broad categories and then drill down right into specific items. We then set up cool visuals displaying food and alcohol sales as compared to budgeted goals. Now this was something I could sink my teeth into from a marketing perspective. I began to see real-life applications for using Power BI when you're not a data person!

The Loaded Pencil Sales Report

Sample visuals looking at the sales data from our fictional restaurant, The Loaded Pencil.

Taking It Mobile, RLS and Developing Like a SQL Pro

The first part of day three was really fascinating, where we focused on making our reports and dashboards mobile-friendly. Essentially, we built a mobile app displaying the outlets of a well-known coffee shop chain. It showed all the locations around BC and even let us target specific regions or cities, so you could find where to get your next caffeine fix. (Unfortunately, star points aren't tracked on this app, so I'll keep using the official one.) I could really the possibilities of mobile-accessible reports for a team with members regularly out of the office on site visits, client meetings, sales calls, etc.

Making Data Mobile

An example of our coffee shop Power BI Desktop report and the mobile-friendly version. Note that on the mobile version, the data set has been filtered to show just the Lower Mainland locations.

While the topic of Row Level Security are not something I need to worry about in my role, it was interesting to see the different methods that they can be created and applied to restrict the information shown to only that which a reader is entitled to see.

Using Power BI When You're Not a Data Person

One of the things that sticks out the most for me was chatting with another participant at the beginning of day two. She was so excited that she was already able to start using some of the stuff we learned the day before to her job. I have to say, my head was full to bursting by the end of the boot camp, but I did gain a few big insights:

  1. Using Power BI when you're not a data person to create a report can make it easier to present and understand the key information. This is especially true if you are like me and get overwhelmed by row upon row of numbers as on a traditional spreadsheet.
  2. Because you can move from the "big picture" down into specific detail with just a few clicks, you can make better connections and insights. You may even be able to pick up on something that has gone unnoticed but is having an impact.
  3. Being able to access precise, up-to-date information while on the go is huge. Imagine being able to answer a specific question right on site, without having to go back to the office and calling or emailing your client later.

Just remember, you don't have to already be an Excel expert to be able to use Power BI. It's certainly complex and can seem daunting, but the instruction here was fantastic and - if there's stuff that wasn't covered - it's great to know that there is also passionate community always willing to help someone trying to learn.

October News and Events

It’s a busy month here at Excelguru. Instead of a technical post we wanted to catch everyone up on our October news and events!

Live Course: Master Your Excel Data October News and Events

Ken is teaching a LIVE, hands on course in Victoria, BC on Friday, October 21 from 9:00am-4:30pm. This session is great for anyone who has to import and clean up data in Excel and will change the way you work with data forever! Ken will teach you how to use Excel Tables, Pivot Tables and Power Query. Space is limited to only 20 attendees, so don't miss out on your chance to sign up. For full details and to register for the session, visit:

October News and Events: Power BI Meet-up

The next Vancouver Power BI User Group meet-up is happening on Thursday, October 13 from 5:30-7:00pm. Scott Stauffer, Microsoft Data Platform MVP, will be presenting on How to Operationalize Power BI. Together we’ll look at some solutions that might help pass your Power BI solution over to IT to manage enterprise-wide. Dinner and soft drinks will be provided. View the full details and sign up to attend at:

Microsoft MVP Award Received

For the 11th straight year, Ken has received the 2016 Most Valuable Professional Award from Microsoft! The previous 10 years, Ken’s award has been in the Excel category, but this year’s award is in the Data Platform category. The new category reflects the work he’s been doing this past year with Power Query and Power BI. Congratulations Ken, your guru status remains assured.mvp_horizontal_fullcolor

Our Team Has Grown

As we mentioned the other day, Rebekah Sax has recently joined the Excelguru team. She brings with her a wealth of experience in marketing, communications, event planning and administration. Please join us in welcoming Rebekah as she helps us make new connections and continue to grow.