Creating a VLOOKUP Function in Power Query

Tonight I decided to actually follow through on something I’d been musing about for a while:  building a full fledged VLOOKUP function in Power Query.  Why?  Yeah… that’s probably a good question!

Replicating VLOOKUP’s exact match is REALLY easy in Power Query.  You simply take two tables and merge them together.  But the approximate match is a little harder to do, since you don’t have matching records on each side to merge together.

Now, to be fair, you could go the route of building a kind of case statement, as Chris Webb has done here.  In actual fact, you probably should do that if you want something that is lean and mean, and the logic won’t change.  But what if you wanted to maintain a table in Excel that holds your lookup values, making it easy to update? Shouldn’t we be able to take that and use it just like a VLOOKUP with an approximate match?  I don’t see why not.  So here’s my take on it.

Practical Use Cases

I see this as having some helpful use cases.  They’ll mostly come from Excel users who are experienced with VLOOKUP and maintain lookup tables, and reach back to that familiarity.  And they would probably be tempted to do something like this:


The concern, of course, is that landing data in the worksheet during this cycle contributes to file size, memory usage and ultimately re-calc speed, so if you can avoid this step on the way to getting it into Power Pivot, you plainly want to do that.

The cool thing is that by building this the way I’ve done it, you’re not restricted to landing your data in the worksheet to use VLOOKUP with it.  You can pull data into Power Query from any source (csv, text file, database, web page) and perform your VLOOKUP against your Excel table without that worksheet round trip.

Let’s Take a Look…

Now, I AM going to use Excel based data for this, only because I have a specific scenario to demonstrate.  You can download a sample file – containing just the data – from this link.  (The completed file is also available at the end of the post.)

So, we have a series of numbers, and want to look them up in this table:


I really used my imagination for this one and called it “LookupTable”.  Remember that, as we need that name later.  Note also that the first record is 1, not 0.  This was done to demonstrate that an approximate match can return a #N/A value, as you’ll see in a minute.

Now here’s what things would look like using standard Excel VLOOKUP formulas against that table:


Hopefully this makes sense.  The formulas in columns 2, 3 and 4 are:

  • =VLOOKUP([@Values],LookupTable,2,TRUE)
  • =VLOOKUP([@Values],LookupTable,3)
  • =VLOOKUP([@Values],LookupTable,2,FALSE)

Just to recap the high points here… column 2 declares the final parameter as ,TRUE which will give us an approximate match.  Column 3 doesn’t declare the final parameter, which will default to ,TRUE and give an an approximate match.  Column 4 declares the final parameter as ,FALSE which means we’ll want an exact match.  The end result is that only one value matches, which is why we get all those #N/A results.

Standard VLOOKUP stuff so far, right?

Creating the VLOOKUP function in Power Query

Before we get to using the function, we need to create it.  To do that we’re going to go to:

  • Power Query –> From Other Sources –> Blank Query
  • View –> Advanced Editor

Highlight all the code in that window and replace it with this… (yes, it’s not short)

let pqVLOOKUP = (lookup_value as any, table_array as table, col_index_number as number, optional approximate_match as logical ) as any =>
/*Provide optional match if user didn't */
matchtype =
if approximate_match = null
then true
else approximate_match,

/*Get name of return column */
Cols = Table.ColumnNames(table_array),
ColTable = Table.FromList(Cols, Splitter.SplitByNothing(), null, null, ExtraValues.Error),
ColName_match = Record.Field(ColTable{0},"Column1"),
ColName_return = Record.Field(ColTable{col_index_number - 1},"Column1"),

/*Find closest match */
SortData = Table.Sort(table_array,{{ColName_match, Order.Descending}}),
RenameLookupCol = Table.RenameColumns(SortData,{{ColName_match, "Lookup"}}),
RemoveExcess = Table.SelectRows(RenameLookupCol, each [Lookup] <= lookup_value),
if Table.IsEmpty(RemoveExcess)=true
then "#N/A"
else Record.Field(RemoveExcess{0},"Lookup"),

/*What should be returned in case of approximate match? */
if Table.IsEmpty(RemoveExcess)=true
then "#N/A"
else Record.Field(RemoveExcess{0},ColName_return),

/*Modify result if we need an exact match */
Return =
if matchtype=true
then ClosestReturn
if lookup_value = ClosestMatch
then ClosestReturn
else "#N/A"
in Return


All right… the function is there.  Now let’s go make use of it… (we’ll come back to how it works in a bit.)

Using the VLOOKUP function in Power Query

Now, before we go any further, I want to ask you a favour.  I need you to pretend for a second.  Pretend that the data we are connecting to next is a database, not an Excel table.  You’ll see how this can be useful if you’ll play along here.  (The only reason I’m using an Excel table for my source data is that it’s easier to share than a database.)

Let’s go click in the DataTable table.  (This one:)


Now, let’s upload this “database” into Power Query…

  • Go to Power Query –> From Table

You should have something like this now:


Funny how Power Query reads the #N/A values as errors, but whatever.  Let’s get rid of those columns so that we’re left with just the Values column.

  • Right click Values –> Remove Other Columns

Now, we’re going to make a really small M code edit.

  • Go to View –> Advanced Editor
  • Copy the second line (starts with Source =…)
  • Paste it immediately above the line you just copied
  • Modify it to read as follows:
    • Source –> LookupSource
    • DataTable –> LookupTable

Your M code should now look as follows:


  • Click Done

Nothing really appears to look different right now, but you’ll notice that you have an extra step called “LookupSource” on the right.  If you switch back and forth between that and Source, you’ll see we are looking at the original DataTable and the LookupTable.  The reason we do this is to make the next step really easy.

  • Go to Add Column –> Add Custom Column
  • Call the column 2 True
  • Enter the following formula:
    • pqVLOOKUP([Values],LookupSource,2,true)

Okay, so what’s what?

  • pqVLOOKUP is the name of our function we added above
  • [Values] is the value we want to look up
  • LookupSource is the table we want to look in to find our result
  • 2 is the column we want to return
  • true is defining that we want an approximate match

And, as you can see when you click OK, it works!


Let’s do the next two columns:

  • Go to Add Column –> Add Custom Column
  • Call the column 3 default
  • Enter the following formula:
    • pqVLOOKUP([Values],LookupSource,3)

So this time we asked for a return from the 3rd column, and we omitted the final parameter.  Notice that it defaulted to true for us:


Last one…

  • Go to Add Column –> Add Custom Column
  • Call the column 2 false
  • Enter the following formula:
    • pqVLOOKUP([Values],LookupSource,2,false)

And how about that, all but one comes back with #N/A:


And with that you can load this into a table in the worksheet:


Notice that the results are identical to that of the original Excel table, with one exception… the #N/A I have provided is text, not an equivalent to the =NA() function.

The completed file is available here.

How Does the VLOOKUP Function in Power Query Actually Work?

This VLOOKUP actually has some advantages over the VLOOKUP we all know and love.  The most important is that we don’t need to worry if the list is sorted or not, as the function takes care of it for you.  It essentially works like this:

  • Pull in the data table
  • Sort it descending by the first column
  • Remove all records greater than the value being searched for
  • Return the value in the requested column for the first remaining record UNLESS we asked for an Exact match
  • If we asked for an Exact match then it tests to see if the return is a match and returns #N/A if it’s not

Some key design principles I used here:

  • The parameters are all in EXACTLY the same order as Excel’s VLOOKUP
  • The required, optional and default parameters match what you already know and use in Excel
  • The function is dynamic in that it will work no matter what your lookup table column names are, how many rows or columns it has
  • It returns results that are in parallel with Excel’s output
  • The function is pretty much a drag’n’drop for your project.  The only thing you need to remember is to define the lookup table in the first part of your query

So how cool is that?  You love VLOOKUP, and you can now use it in Power Query to perform VLOOKUP’s from your Power Query sourced database queries against tables of Excel data without hitting the worksheet first!  (In fact, if your database has an approximate table, you could VLOOKUP from database table against database table!)

33 thoughts on “Creating a VLOOKUP Function in Power Query

  1. Hi Ken, This is a great post! I have a model where I'm going about this the old way of landing the data in the file, then doing the vlookup. This is a much more efficient approach.

    I have a question about the error handling. You are returning the "#N/A" text within the function if it is an error. What is the best way to further evaluate the error? In Excel you could use IFERROR. In power query would you just use an IF Then statement, or is there a better way to handle errors?

    Thanks again!

  2. Hey Jon,

    It depends on what kind of error handling you're looking for, really. You could test for the #N/A as follows:
    = if [ColName] = "#N/A" then < do something > else < do something else >

    We're also not stuck to returning #N/A, of course. We could return null, "not found", or even an error if we wanted to.

  3. Pingback: Excel Roundup 20150202 « Contextures Blog

  4. Great stuff Ken. Would you be able to do similar to replicate the Match/Index functionality in Excel
    or alternatively and more simply, replicate the LookUpValue function in PowerPivot
    I just want to pass a search value, result column and search column
    I've had a go but my brain went into meltdown / shutdown mode very quickly!

  5. Hi Ken,

    Thanks for the post! I was able to replicate this successfully for my Power Query, which gets data from and Excel Table and a SharePoint List. However, since I've added the "pqVLOOKUP" column, refreshing my data takes much longer (approx. 2-3 seconds per line item). With over 10,000 line items, this takes quite some time, and this is only with one pqVLOOKUP column; I was planning on adding 10+ more. Any ideas of how to make my data load quicker? Thanks again!

  6. I guess the first question is "do you need an approximate match". It's the searching through all possibilities that takes the time. The other alternative would be to create a table with all possibilities in it, then merge the two (simulating a PQ VLOOKUP Exact match). My guess is that could be faster.

  7. Hi, very interesting post! Great work.
    I'm looking for something like index & match working into pq.
    I have a table with different person in rows, "year&month" in coloumns (201501,201503,201504...): in every different cell I have a different name representin a workplace (place1,place2...)
    Now, in my pq I have different rows and a coloumn containing name of person, a coloumn with year&month and I'd like to add a coloumn containing the work place corresponding to that person for that yearmonth. I can't find the way. Could help me?
    Thanks in advance.
    Roberto, Italy

  8. Hi Roberto,

    The issue, I think, is the MATCH function. Index we could make work fairly easily, but the MATCH kind of depends on whether you are trying to match column headers or rows. Each of those needs to be handled differently in Power Query...

  9. Hi Ken, thanks for your answer.
    I try to explain me better. Table 1 contains different col with progression of "YearMonth" (201501, 201502...), and Rows with different "Person": every cell of the Table 1 contains a name that is a different work place (Place1, Place1, Place 1, Place 3, Place 3...).
    Table 2 contains dataset from PQ: for each record there is a coloumn containig a "Person" and another containing "YearMonth".
    The goal is to create a new Col in Table 2 containing, for each record, the name (Place1, Place2...) of the cell in Table 1 that BOTH Match with the "Person" (Row) and the "YearMonth" (Col) of that record.
    In Excel I use INDEX and MATCH function that I can't manage in PQ.
    Another solution could be create the new Col in PowerPivot? Is there the function?
    Sorry for ALL these questions, and thanks for your very appreciated answer!
    Roberto, Italy

  10. Hi Roberto,
    You can unpivot Table1 in Power Query (Select person column ->Unpivot other columns), then merge the results with table2 by Person & YearMonth.


  11. Hi Elias,
    Thank you so much.
    I think it's a great idea. I have been able to do everything but near the end of the process of loading last files of the directory I use, Excel frozen....
    I tried many times...the same. I cancel the cache, no way.
    But I think it's the right method.
    Thanks, I'll try again.
    Roberto, Italy

  12. Hi Elias and Ken,
    IT WORKS! Wow...great tip!
    Yesterday didn't because there was a file corrupted.
    Thank you so much for your work and your blog.

  13. Thank you very much - your step-by-step guide was very informative and has saved me an immense amount of time!

  14. Hello
    I also have a problem with #N/A error when trying to unpivot.
    My original excel table contains #N/A errors (due to wrong mapping - that's fine). However, when I load this table into Power Query, it transforms these #N/As into "Error". If I want to unpivot this table I end up with Errors in all the columns of the rows that originally had a cell with "Error". The result is a nonsense because data is lost...
    How can I load data into Power Query and tell it to treat all the N/As in original excel as text? Or how to let it ignore the errors in the source table when I try to unpivot?
    Thanks for help,

  15. Hi George,

    After pulling the data in, select the columns that show the errors. Go to the Transform tab and choose Replace Errors. Replace it with #N/A and it should then treat it as text for you.

    Hope that helps!

  16. Hi Ken, I have a question about the performance issue. I have to handle master data with Vlookup function. Can I know which would perform better/ faster between power query and PowerPivot? Power query can do vlookup. PowerPivot can do relationship to achieve it. Thank you in advance

  17. Hi Emma,

    Well... they're kind of apples and oranges. Power Query will take longer to load up front, but can avoid the memory required to hold a separate table in Power Pivot that needs to be linked. It's Power Pivot's memory usage that drives its performance.

    If your model is loading slowly when you click a slicer, move to Power Query to shift the time to the refresh. If it works fine with slicers as is, do the work with relationships in Power Pivot.

  18. Hi Ken,

    I had a vlookup table of all possible options and what to classify them as, now power query correctly simplifies down all possible options into 12 groups, but I still get ten million records coming back as (blank) even though my pivot table says to classify (blank) as Group Misc, is there something else I need to do in order for power query to capture blanks and convert them in the query? Thank you.

  19. Hey there,

    So one thing I'd be curious on is if you are seeing a disconnect between blank and null. Those are not the same in Power Query and might be a place to start looking. The other thing to recognize is that Power Query is case sensitive, which could lead to mismatches as well unless you deal with that in your M code.

  20. Ken, this is brilliant! You never cease to amaze me. (Also, I love your book M is for (Data) Monkey)!

    I have an extension of this question, perhaps you'd look?

    Essentially I am trying to do a lookup against two variables, most notably a date. So, I'm trying to lookup an employee from an ID value and a date... The lookup table typically has several entries for each ID value at random dates (random as that there isn't a set number of days between them). The date value has to at least greater than or equal to the lookup table date, but less than any other later dates that may occur.

    For example, we're looking up ID 12345 for the date of 1/20/2016, but the lookup table contains a row for ID 12345 for both 1/18/2016, and 1/22/2016. It needs to round down to the nearest date past the date value, returning the employee for ID 12345 on 1/18/2016.

  21. I forgot to include what I've worked out so far...
    It's quite basic, as I'm still learning about the syntax and details of PQ.
    I'm using a custom function, but so far have only been able to return single values. Is it possible to return a table/record that can be expanded in the invoking query (like a Table.NestedJoin)? I would also ideally like the column "[ID]" set as a variable, so it can be used on alternate columns but I can't figure out the syntax...I even tried utilizing the column number by using your ColTable example, added an Index Column & filtered, but still couldn't figure out how to use it to refer to a column from within the function.
    IDTest = (table as table, id as text, date as date) =>
    try Table.Max(Table.SelectRows(table, each [ID]=
    id and [Effective Date] <= date),"Effective Date")[Employee] otherwise null
    Invoking Query:
    Sauce = LookupTable,
    Source = DataTable,
    LookDown = Table.AddColumn(Source, "LookDown",
    each IDTest(Sauce, [ID], [Date]))

  22. How about using "Table.Buffer" for the "RenameLookupCol" part? I think it can enhance the speed of the function.

    RenameLookupCol = Table.Buffer(Table.RenameColumns(SortData,{{ColName_match, "Lookup"}}))

  23. It may, but I think you'd probably rather buffer the table before you call the function, not once you call it.

    LookupSource = Table.Buffer(Excel.CurrentWorkbook(){[Name=LookupTable]}[Content],

    I have not tested this though.

  24. Great Blog! Please forgive me if this is not the correct thread to be posting in. I'm trying to wrap my head around this whole "M" language but I'm not quite there yet. I use the following excel function to find the last instance of "Serial #", and then it returns a value from the same row in the "Opr. short text" column.

    =IFERROR(LOOKUP(2,1/(MASTER_DATA[Serial '#]=[@[Serial '#]]),MASTER_DATA[Opr. short text]),"")

    I understand somewhat that the "IFERROR" portion might not be necessary and that the "M" Language does not use all caps. I'm just having a difficult time with my specific example converting this to something I can use in Power Query.
    Am I heading in the right direction or is there another simpler method to attain the same result? I really appreciate the input! *My apologies, newbie here*

  25. Hi Ken

    What would be the drawbacks of the following approach to emulating an approximate VLOOKUP in a simple case:
    Merge the two tables, setting the Join Properties to include all the records from the 'Many' table.
    Sort the resulting table by the join/lookup column in the Many table.
    Use Fill Down on that column to replace the nulls with the lookup values.

    I've just started reading M is for (Data) Monkey - very useful and practical.

  26. Further to my last question about Fill Down and VLOOKUP, I've just worked out a pretty obvious drawback for myself: it would only work if all of the lookup table's rows were matched in the Many table. To avoid this, I guess that the Join Properties would need to be set to Full Outer, and a custom column created using 'if' to return the value from the lookup table if the Many table equivalent was null. This would become the sort column and, once the relevant columns had been filled down, the lookup table rows could be filtered out (filter out nulls in the Many table join column).

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