The history of posts on the Ribbon can be found at the Ribbon Example Table of Contents.
For this installment, I thought I would focus on exploring the button control in depth, explaining what each piece of XML does when building the ribbon control, and what types of values are permitted for each one. In a follow-up article, we'll discuss how to make these controls dynamic, but for now we'll just focus on a very static button in a custom group.
Beginning With Static Items
Whenever we are programming, it is helpful to understand what pieces of code are assigned to what properties of the object. The following is a list of all of the components that we can set for a button, and where they show up:
Base XML Markup
The framework for the XML Markup is fairly static, although we'll explore some minor modifications to it in the next section. For most purposes, however, it starts with a declaration of the schema, opening your Ribbon object, referring to (or creating) a tab, and referring to (or creating) a group. Within the group tag is where we will place all of our button (or other) controls. The XML below creates a new tab called "XLG" after the "View" tab, adds a group called "My Testing Tab" and puts the button there.
Rather than explain all the XML at this point, be aware that the code to create any control within the group should be surrounded by the open and close tags: "<" and "/>"
For our purposes, I have constructed the base XML we'll use, which should be added to an Excel file by using the CustomUI editor. I would suggest creating, saving and closing a new file for this (make it an xlsm file). Once done, open it in the CustomUI editor and paste in the following XML:
The above code will be used for all demonstrations in this article. Once saved, the following group will show on the XLG ribbon tab:
Reviewing the button code and properties
We're going to begin our dissection by looking at the line that begins with the "button id" portion of the XML.
Remember! All of the XML markup is case sensitive!
You must have an ID tag associated with your control, as this is how the application keeps track of what controls have what properties. You won't see this on the ribbon, as it is a "behind the scenes" feature.
You may use any one of the following for your ID:
- The XML form is id="name of id"
- The name of the id must be unique for each id added
- Allows creation of custom buttons and controls
- The XML form is idMso="id of control"
- The name of the id must match a valid office control name
- Allows "repurposing" of a control (replacing aspects of an existing control with your own intentions
- The XML form is idQ="id of control"
- Used for working within defined namespaces (and is out of the context of this article.)
For the purposes of this article, I have used the "id" tag, and assigned it an id of "button1": id="button1"
The "description" Tag
The description tag is not publicly shown on the ribbon, and is an optional control with no default value. In our case, I assigned a value to this property with the following piece of XML: description="my custom description"
The "enabled" Tag
The enabled tag specifies if the control is active or not. It is specified with the following XML: enabled="true"
A control specified with enabled = "false" will not trigger anything when clicked, and will be grayed out, as shown below:
This property is optional, and will revert to a default value of "true" if not specified.
When inserting images, you have the choice of specifying one of the following:
- The XML form is image="my image name"
- The image tag allows you to refer to your own images that have been included in the file package
- The XML form is imageMso="MS Office image id"
- The imageMSO tag allows you to specify Microsoft Office images to be used on the ribbon
- To get the image id, go into Office|Excel Options|Customize, and let your mouse hover over the names in the list. At the end you'll see the id within brackets, as shown below:
For the purposes of this example, I've specified to use the built in Printer icon, by supplying the following XML: imageMso="FilePrint"
The image tag is completely optional, and will not show an image if you ignore it. If you omitted any type of image tag, (leaving the rest of our XML as is,) you would end up with a button like this:
The "label" Tag
The Label tag is used to assign a caption to a button, and is an optional tag. If you leave it blank, you will see no caption with your button at all. In our case, I assigned a value to this property with the following piece of XML: label="my custom button label"
This piece of XML manifests itself on the ribbon as shown below:
The "keytip" Tag
The Keytip tag's purpose is to allow you to access your ribbon control via keystrokes. If you read the XML carefully, you'll see that I've assigned a keytip of "x" to the XLG tab, and the following portion assigns a keytip to the actual button: keytip="zcb".
If you press Alt+x, you'll see the keytip show up on the button as follows:
According to the FAQ's in Microsoft's Customizing the Office (2007) Ribbon User Interface for Developers (Part 3 of 3) article, they suggest that you start all keytips with the "Z" character. In my experience, however, leading with an uppercase Z, (followed by whatever characters,) will yield you a keytip of "Y".
The "onAction" Tag
onAction is the property that specifies what code routine is run when the button is clicked. You will need to program the appropriate code for the routine yourself, and specify the name of that routine here. As there are examples of how to deal with this aspect on this blog, I will not cover it in much more detail at this point, except to say that the routine I have chosen for the example is called "rbnButton_Click", and is specified with the XML of onAction="rbnButton_Click".
It should be noted that you can designate a single routine as a central handler for all of your buttons, and take appropriate action by testing the id, or you can program a separate routine for each individual button. One thing that should not be done, however, is to try and handle controls of different types through a single onAction handler. Many controls require slightly different signatures, so they could fail if you try to go that route.
The signature for a button's onAction control in VBA is as follows:
[vb]Private Sub rbnButton_Click(control As IRibbonControl)
I would also suggest that it is a "Best Practice" to ensure that all onAction routines are specified as Private, and placed in a standard module.
The "showImage" Tag
This tag makes the image visible or hidden, and is specified as follows: showImage="true".
The showImage tag can accept values of "true" or "false" only, and will default to true if not specified.
Interestingly, and I'm not sure if this is a bug or not, my tests show that this setting only seems to apply to a button if the size is set to "normal". I.e. "Large" images will show even if the setting is specified as false. What it should look like is as follows:
The picture above was generated by not specifying an image or imageMso tag at all. So if you really want a large picture-less button, it looks like that is the only route for now.
For reference, the showImage tag does work correctly with a "normal" sized button, and the picture below illustrates that:
The "showLabel" Tag
This tag shows or hides the button label, and uses the following XML to do so: showLabel="true"
ShowLabel is an optional tag as well, with a default value of true.
Strangely, this tag shows the same idiosyncrasies as the showImage tag above. Specifying false in our XML should yield the button below, but for some reason this picture had to be generated by removing the label="my custom button label" code from the XML.
Again, for demonstration, the following would display (correctly) when setting the showLabel tag to "false" and the size to "normal":
The "size" Tag
The purpose of this tag is easy to guess... it sets the size of the button image. In the examples above we've been using a large button, which was declared with the following XML: size="large"
The size tag is optional, and can accept values of either "normal" (small), or "large". If it is not specified, it will default to "normal"
A picture of our button using a size of "normal" is shown below:
The "screentip" tag
This tag allows you to set a screentip for your button by specifying the following XML: screentip="my custom screentip"
Again, this is an optional tag that will leave the field blank if not specified. A picture showing where this information is displayed is shown here:
The "supertip" tag
This tag allows you to set a supertip (similar to a screentip) for your button by specifying the following XML: supertip="my custom supertip"
Again, this is an optional tag that will leave the field blank if not specified. The following picture shows where the supertip information is displayed:
The "visible" tag
This tag sets the visibility of a button, and is specified as follows: visible="true"
It is an optional tag which can accept the values of "true" or "false", and will default to true if not specified.
As you might expect, setting the value of your control to false will hide it completely, as shown below:
I hope that this has helped to explain the components of a RibbonX button and the code used to create it. I'm also hoping that the pictures to show the effects of changes were useful to display exactly what effect modifying pieces of the XML would do to the overall output.
While it is necessary to understand the basic construction of a static button, it is unlikely that most people will have their needs met by one. To that end, there will be a follow-up post to this, explaining how to make these pieces dynamic, allowing us to change them on the fly.